Analysis of Factors Affecting the Floating of the Rural Employed Population, Case Study: Khorasan Razavi Province

Document Type : research paper

Authors

1 Researcher at Institute of Tourism Research, ACECR of Khorasan Razavi Province and Ph.D. Candidate in Geography and Rural Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Geography, Faculty of Humanities, Ferdowsi University of,Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

During the past two decades, metropolitan areas of Iran, including Mashhad, have experienced significant growth in urban development. However, the decrease of job opportunities in the rural areas and, in some cases, the depletion of the rural income sources have led to the "floating population" phenomenon in Iran. Rural workers are short-term migrants to cities to gain job opportunities and raise their incomes, sometimes becoming long-term residents. Due to the lack of internal studies on the floating population, this study, based on the censuses of 2006 (1385) and 2011 (1390), sought to identify and analyze the factors affecting the floating population in Khorasan Razavi. The data were collected in 27 cities of the region and analyzed utilizing correlation, regression, and U Mann-Whitney Tests. According to the study, indicators such as the percentage of agricultural employees, industry employees, and literacy index showed a significant difference in favor of cities with a high floating employment rate. In addition, the percentage of agricultural, industrial, and service workers, and the literacy percentage index, both in the correlation test and in the regression test, showed a meaningful relationship with the dependent variable, the rate of floating employed population.

Keywords


Addanki, S.C., & Venkataraman, H. (2017). Greening the economy: A review of urban sustainability measures for developing new cities. Sustainable Cities and Society, 32, 1-8.
Amini Nejad, R., & Mahjoorian, M. R. (2010). [The Study of Social and Economic – Traffic Effects on Long Time Commuting (Persian)]. Urban Regional Studies and Research. 2(6), 117-126.
Andersson, M., Lavesson, N. & Niedomysl, T. (2018). Rural to urban long-distance commuting in Sweden: trends, characteristics and pathways. Journal of Rural Studies, 59, 67-77.
Brueckner, J. K., & Lall, S. V. (2015). Cities in developing countries: fueled by rural–urban migration, lacking in tenure security, and short of affordable housing. In Handbook of regional and urban economics (Vol. 5, pp. 1399-1455). Elsevier.
Cervero, R. (1989). Jobs-housing balancing and regional mobility. Journal of the American Planning Association, 55(2), 136-150.
Chai, J. C., & Karin Chai, B. (1997). China's floating population and its implications. International Journal of Social Economics, 24(7/8/9), 1038-1051.
Chang, L. T. (2009). Factory Girls: From Village to City in a Changing China. New York, NY: Spiegel & Grau.
Du, H., Li, S. M., & Hao, P. (2018). 'Anyway, you are an outsider': Temporary migrants in urban China. Urban Studies, 55(14), 3185-3201.
Fan, C. C. (2011). Settlement intention and split households: Findings from a survey of migrants in Beijing's urban villages. China Review, 11-41.
Fan, C. C., & Li, T. (2018). Familization of rural–urban migration in China: evidence from the 2011 and 2015 national floating population surveys. Area Development and Policy, 1-23.
Ghalandarian, I., & Dadashpoor, H. (2018). [Analyze and Identify Spatial Patterns of Migration in the Territory of Iran (Persian)]. Journal of Geography and Planning. 21(62), 223-246.
Gibson, J., McKenzie, D., Rohorua, H., & Stillman, S. (2019). The long-term impact of international migration on economic decision-making: Evidence from a migration lottery and lab-in-the-field experiments. Journal of Development Economics, 138, 99-115.
Gu, P., & Ma, X. (2013). Investigation and analysis of a floating population's settlement intention and environmental concerns: A case study in the Shawan River Basin in Shenzhen, China. Habitat International, 39, 170-178.
Hao, P., & Tang, S. (2018). What keeps China's floating population from moving?. Chinese Journal of Sociology, 4(1), 30-55.
He, C., Chen, T., Mao, X., & Zhou, Y. (2016). Economic transition, urbanization and population redistribution in China. Habitat International, (51), 39-47.
Horner, M. W. (2004). Exploring metropolitan accessibility and urban structure. Urban Geography, 25(3), 264-284.
Khraif, R. M. (1992). Permanent versus temporary rural migrants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Geo Journal, 26(3), 363-370.
Keshri, K., & Bhagat, R. B. (2013). Socioeconomic determinants of temporary labour migration in India: A regional analysis. Asian Population Studies, 9(2), 175-195.
Knight, J. (2013). The economic causes and consequences of social instability in China. China Economic Review, 25, 17-26.
Li, H., Wang, Y., Han, J., & Yu, Z. (2011). Origin distribution visualization of floating population and determinants analysis: A case study of Yiwu city. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 7, 116-121.
Li, J., Xu, C., Chen, M., & Sun, W. (2019). Balanced development: Nature environment and economic and social power in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 210, 181-189.
Logan, J. (Ed.). (2011). The new Chinese city: globalization and market reform (Vol. 52). John Wiley & Sons.
Luo, J., Zhang, X., Wu, Y., Shen, J., Shen, L., & Xing, X. (2018). Urban land expansion and the floating population in China: For production or for living?. Cities, 74, 219-228.
Mansourian, H. Rezvani, M. R., & Saadi, S. (2018). [Spatial Analysis of Rural Floating Population Employed in Urban Areas (Persian)]. Journal of Rural Research. 8(4), 621-634. doi 10.22059/JRUR.2018.64054
Mansourian, H., Rajaei, A., Ashouri, H., & Hatami, A. (2018). [Transition from Urban Labor Market to Regional Labor Market in Iran: An Analysis of Floating Population Data (Persian)]. Spatial Planning. 8(1), 51-70. doi 10.22108/SPPL.2018.108542.1146.
McErlean, S., & Wu, Z. (2003). Regional agricultural labour productivity convergence in China. Food Policy, 28(3), 237-252.
Mohabir, N., Jiang, Y., & Ma, R. (2017). Chinese floating migrants: Rural-urban migrant labourers' intentions to stay or return. Habitat International, 60, 101-110.
Nguyen, L. D., Raabe, K., & Grote, U. (2015). Rural–urban migration, household vulnerability, and welfare in Vietnam. World Development, 71, 79-93.
OECD. (2013). The Silver and White Economy: The Chinese Demographic Challenge: Preliminary version of chapter 6, in forthcoming report "Fostering resilient economies: demographic transition in local labour markets".
Pourahmad, A., Zeberdast, S., Gharakhlu, M., & Rajaei, S. A. (2013). [Spatial Analysis of Commuting Population for Work and Education Around of Metropolis Area (Case Sturdy: Tehran Metropolis Area) (Persian)]. Journal of Rural Research. 4(2), 385-407. doi 10.22059/JRUR.2013.35651.
Qi, W., Muttarak, R., & Abel, G. (2017). Bilateral Migration Measures.
Qiao, L., Li, Y., Liu, Y., & Yang, R. (2016). The spatio‐temporal change of China's net floating population at county scale from 2000 to 2010. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 57(3), 365-378.
Rajaei, S. A., Khorasani, M. A., & Sahneh, B. (2015). [Exploratory Analysis of Spatial Data of Daily Trips in Rural Areas, Case: Villages around Metropolitan Regions (Persian)]. Geographical Planning of Space Quarterly Journal. 5(16), 119-136.
Sharma, A. (2013). Exclusionary urbanization and changing migration pattern in India: Is commuting by workers a feasible alternative. In International Union for the Scientific Study of Population Conference, Busan, Korea (Vol. 26).
Shi, Q., & Liu, T. (2019). Glimpsing China's future urbanization from the geography of a floating population. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 0308518X19834572.
Sjaastad, L. A. (1962). The costs and returns of human migration. Journal of political Economy, 70(5, Part 2), 80-93.
Taghvaee, M., Beshagh, M. R., & Salarvand, I. (2012). [Testing Research Hypotheses using SPSS (Persian)]. Moazami Publishing: First Edition.
Tan, S., Li, Y., Song, Y., Luo, X., Zhou, M., Zhang, L., & Kuang, B. (2017). Influence factors on settlement intention for floating population in urban area: a China study. Quality & Quantity, 51(1), 147-176.
United Nations. (2010). World population prospects: The 2009 revision. Retrieved from  http://esa.un.org/wup2009/unup/.
Wang, X. H., & Dai, W. Z. (2006). The Relativity Analysis of Population Migration and Upgrading of Industrial Structure [J]. Journal of Nanjing College for Population Programme Management, 4.
Wang, Y., Dong, L., Liu, Y., Huang, Z., & Liu, Y. (2019). Migration patterns in China extracted from mobile positioning data. Habitat International, 86, 71-80.
World Bank. (2013). Planning, Connecting, and Financing Cities Now: Priorities for City Leaders. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Yang, X., & Goldstein, S. (1990). Population movement in Zhejiang Province, China: The impact of government policies. International Migration Review, 24(3), 509-533.
You, Z., Yang, H., & Fu, M. (2018). Settlement intention characteristics and determinants in floating populations in Chinese border cities. Sustainable cities and society, 39, 476-486.
Zang, L., Zang, & Zhang. (2019). Re-understanding of Contemporary Chinese Political Development. Springer Singapore.
Zhang, X. Q. (2016). The trends, promises and challenges of urbanisation in the world. Habitat International, 54, 241-252.
Zhu, Y. (2007). China's floating population and their settlement intention in the cities: Beyond the Hukou reform. Habitat International, 31(1), 65-76.
Zhu, Y., & Chen, W. (2010). The settlement intention of China's floating population in the cities: recent changes and multifaceted individual‐level determinants. Population, Space and Place, 16(4), 253-267.
Zhu, Y., Ding, J., Wang, G., Shen, J., Lin, L., & Ke, W. (2016). Population geography in China since the 1980s: Forging the links between population studies and human geography. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 26(8), 1133-1158.