Analysis of factors accountable for rural economic underdevelopment(Case study: Rural areas of Rasht, North of Iran)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. student of Geography and Rural Planning, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2 Professor of Geography Department, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Geography Department, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran


Purpose: The current research aimed at identifying the obstacles affecting the underdevelopment of the rural economy of Rasht in the north of Iran.
Methodology: The research is a qualitative-quantitative applied study. The statistical population in this research is the villages of Rasht County. A group of researchers, specialists, and executive managers related to economic development were selected. These individuals are chosen using the qualitative research method and a snowball sampling method. Therefore, 20 researchers, experts, and managers were designated. The data analysis methods were qualitative (grounded theory) and FARAS.  
Results: From the experts’ point of view, the underdevelopment of villages in Rasht county is due to the weakness of databases for rural industries, lack of amenities and facilities, limited agriculture and livestock processing technology, the excessive number of organizations for rural affairs, and the lack of coordination between them, lack of legal and financial support, limited markets for agricultural and livestock products, and weakness of educational programs. Also, the results from ARAS fuzzy showed that the excessive number of organizations for rural affairs, with a weight of 0.441, is the most influential factor.
Conclusion: Examining the issues raised in the current research shows that the economic development of the villages of Rasht city is a complex phenomenon with many obstacles to sustainability. Therefore, knowing the different aspects of living in the village and their barriers is necessary to maintain the future of the villages of Rasht.


Azkia, M., Ghaffari, G., (2004). Rural development with an emphasis on the rural society of Iran. Ney Publications.
Conyers, D. (2002). Social analysis for local social development planning. (A. Mortazavi, Trans.) Village and Development Publication (1986).
Aileen, S. (2006), Migration: Pre-requisite for rural economic regeneration? Journal of Rural Studies. 22 (3), 354-366.
Ake Caude, (1996), Democracy and Development in Africa, the Brookings Institute, Washington DC.
Bakhtiyari, S. Dehghnizadeh, M. 2013. The role of industrial activities in economic development the data-output model approach (urban areas). Planning and budgeting. 18(2), 59-79.
Chenery, H., Robinson, S., & Syrquin, M. (1986). Industrialization and Growth. A Comparative Study. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 150-200
Christoun, L. (2005), Agricultural Organizations Debt Adjustment: The Role of the State, the Agricultural Organizations and the Agricultural Bank of Greece, Sineteristiki Poria17(2), 232-251.
Dearden, P., Roland, R., Catherine, Allen (2002). Sustainable Livelihood Approaches from the work to the field supporting livelihoods. Oxford: University of Oxford.
Dorri Sedeh, S., Tavakoli, M., (2021). Obstacles to green economy development in entrepreneurship in rural areas of Isfahan Province, 2(6), 24-39.
Ebrahimzadeh, I. Paydar, A. 2018. Rural economic development and employment generation planning based on drivers and front and back chain Case study: Masjid Dabulfazl village in Iranshahr. Geography and development. 57. 1-3.
Font X. and Ahjem Tor, E. (1999). Search for a balance in Tourism Development strategies. International journal of contemporary hospitality management, 11(2/3), 73-77.
Ghasemi, M., Javan, J. (2014). Clarification of the relationship between diversification of economic activities and sustainable rural development, Case Study: Mashhad County, Journal of Rural Research, 5(2), 237-262. 
Hajipour, M., Karimipour, J., (2020). Analysis of obstacles to the sustainability of rural production in Central District of Boshrouyeh County, Journal of Village and Space Sustainable Development, 1(4), 4-105. -105/vssd.2021.4267.1028
Hall, P. and Stephan, F. (1994). Witt and luie Management, Handbook. Rutledge, New York.
Jahanshiri, M., Jalalian, H., (2018). Evaluation of experts’ attitude on barriers to rural development (case study: Alborz Province), Geography and Human Relationships, 1(1), 237-246.
Khayri, T, Yasouri, M., Shahzeidi, S., (2022). Barriers to Diversification of Economic Activities in Villages Around Urmia Lake (Case study: South Marhamatabad in Miandoab County), Geographical Studies of Coastal Areas Journal, 3(1), 101-118.
Krantz, L. (2001). “The Sustainable Livelihood Approach to Poverty Reduction: An Introduction”, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA).
Kulikov, I. M., Semin, A. N., Kislitskiy, M. M., Strelka, E. A.(2019). Digital solutions of management issues and strategic planning for the development of agriculture and rural areas. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies
Liu, Z. (2008). Human capital externalities and rural-urban migration: Evidence from rural China. China Economic Review. Livelihood Strategies in Rural Africa: Concepts, Dynamics and Policy Implications, Food Policy, Vol. 26, No. 4, PP. 315. –
Motiee Langroodi, S.H., (2012). Rural planning in Iran. Mashhad: Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research of Mashhad.
Najafi Kani, A. (2019).  Bottlenecks of economic development in rural areas, case: villages of Dashli Boroon District, Gonbad-e Kavus County. Journal of Space Economy & Rural Development, 8(3), 151-168.
Nazm Far, H. (2017). Analysis of the level of rural development and prosperity of the villages of West Azerbaijan Province, Journal of Space Economy & Rural Development, 3(5), 5-24.
Papoliyazdi, M.H. Ebrahimi, M.A. 2013. Theories of rural development. Samt, Tehran.
Peter, D. et al. (2004). Rural-urban migration and agricultural productivity: the case of Senegal. Agricultural economics, 31(1), 33-45.
Pindado, E., Sánchez, M. (2017). Researching the entrepreneurial behavior of new and existing ventures in European agriculture. Small Business Economics, vol.49, No.2, pp. 421-444.
Rahimi, M. Tavasoli, F. (2012). Investigating the role of rural development in five-year development plans, the fourth academic conference of Sara.
Rezaei, B., Najafpour, H., Naderi, N., (2016). Obstacles and solutions for the development of green entrepreneurship in Kermanshah. Space economy and rural development, 6(2), 59-78.
Rezvani, M.. Badri, S.A. Tarabi, Z.. Hajari, B. (2016). Identifying rural development solutions using SOAR collaborative framework, Case of Study: Meyghan Village. Journal of Space Economy & Rural Development, 5(4). 27-43.
Saeedi, A. (1998). Sustainable and unsustainable development of rural areas in Iran, Housing and Revolution, Tehran, 22-16.
Seyed Alipour, Paydar, A. Sadeghi, Kh. 2015. Presenting an experimental model of solutions for realizing a sustainable economy with an emphasis on sustainable security in rural areas (Jazmurian-Southern Kerman implementation area). . Geography and development. 44(14),45-63.
Serrat, O. (2008). The sustainable livelihoods approach. Manila A D B.
Shen, F. (2009). Tourism and Sustainable Livelihoods Approach: Application within the Chinese Context. Ph.D. Thesis, Lincoln University. P8.
Szimai, A., & Verspagen, B. (2011). Manufacturing and economic growth in developing countries 1950-2005. UNU-MERIT Working Paper.
UNWTO, (2007). Tourism highlights. Edition.
Yasoori, M. (2015). Introduction to the rural economy (1st ed.), Gilan University Press.
Zinchuk, T., Kutsmus, N., Kovalchuk, O. Charucka, O. (2018). Challenges of sustainable development of rural economy. Management Theory and Studies for Rural Business and Infrastructure Development, 40(4), 609–619.