Assessing Rural Livability with the Rural Ecovillage Approach: A Case Study of Villages in Lorestan, Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 The Academic Center for Education, Culture, and Research (ACECR) of Lorestan Unit, Khorramabad, Iran.

2 Department of Human Geography and Planning, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Geography, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran

4 Faculty of Encyclopedia Research, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran


Purpose: This research aimed to assess rural livability using the Ecovillage model in selected villages of Lorestan province.
Methods: A sample of 55 villages in Lorestan was selected using spatial and cluster sampling methods. Data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire and analyzed using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) models. Indices were categorized into social, economic, physical, ecological, and information technology dimensions.
Results: The TOPSIS model ranked Darband, Shahpourabad, and Horrabad-e Bala as the top three villages regarding rural livability.
Conclusion: The study indicates that the rural Ecovillage model in Lorestan does not meet desired criteria for livability.


Alasalmi, V. (2022). Placemaking for pessimists-Development funds and liveability in shrinking Puolanka.‏ Department of Architecture, Aalto University.
Barmar S, Alimohammadian M, Sadjadi S A, Poustchi H, Hosseini S M, Yasseri M. Generalized Structural Equation Modeling (GSEM) and its Application in Health Researches. sjsph 2018; 16 (1) :51-62.
Buzarjomehri, D., Esmaeili, A., & Roomiyani, A. (2017). The Role of Indigenous Knowledge of Villagers in Rural Livability (Case study: Doin and Tukur villages in Shirvān city). Geography and Territorial Spatial Arrangement, 7(24), 93-110.
Divsalar, A. and Parhizgar, A., 2005, City ecology and its effects on the sustainable development of coastal cities, coastal cities Babolsar, Space Logistics Journal of the Planning and Spatial planning, Vol. 15, No. 3, P.20.
Gieling, J., & Haartsen, T. (2017). Liveable villages: the relationship between volunteering and liveability in the perceptions of rural residents. Sociologia Ruralis, 57, 576-597.‏
Gilman, R. (1991). The Ecovillage Challenge. In Context.
Haartsen, T. and V. Venhorst (2010) Planning for decline: anticipating on population decline in the Netherlands. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 101 (2) pp. 218– 227
Heidari, M. T., Jahani, D., Rahmati, P., & Haghi, Y. (2022). Capacity-building of Travel Repetition with the Approach of Quality of Perception of the Origin-destination Programs of Tourist Trains (Case Study: Lorestan Tourist Train). Geography and Environmental Planning, 33(3), 43-68.
Hoseinabadi, A. (2019). Role of Livestock in Rural Economy Development in Lorestan Province. Geography and Human Relationships, 1(4), 495-505.
Jones, L. and J. Heley (2014) Practices of participation and voluntarism among older people in rural Wales: choice, obligation and constraints to active ageing. Sociologia Ruralis 56 (2) pp. 176– 196.
Kaal, H. (2011) A conceptual history of liveability. City: Analysis for Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action 15 pp. 532– 547
Khorasani, M. A., Rezvani, M. R., Motiei Langroodi, S. H., & Rafieian, M. (2013). Surveying and Assessment of Livability in Peri Urban Villages (Case Study: Varamin Township). Journal of Rural Research, 3(12), 85-110.
Khorrami, Z., Ye, T., Sadatmoosavi, A., Mirzaee, M., Davarani, M. M. F., & Khanjani, N. (2021). The indicators and methods used for measuring urban liveability: a scoping review. Reviews on Environmental Health, 36(3), 397-441.
Kisby, B. (2010) The big society: power to the people? The Political Quarterly 81 (4) pp. 1– 8.
Koduvayur Venkitaraman, A., & Joshi, N. (2022). A critical examination of a community-led ecovillage initiative: a case of Auroville, India. Climate Action, 1(1), 1-9.‏
Leidelmeijer, K. (2012). Buurtparticipatie en leefbaarheid. Ministerie van BZK/WBI. RIGO research en Advies BV.
Leidelmeijer, K., Marlet, G., Van Iersel, J., Van Woerkens, C., & Van der Reijden, H. (2008). De Leefbaarometer, Leefbaarheid in Nederlandse wijken en buurten gemeten en vergeleken rapportage instrumentontwikkeling. Amsterdam/Utrecht: RIGO Research en Advies BV/Atlas voor gemeenten.
Li, X., Yang, H., Jia, J., Shen, Y., & Liu, J. (2021). Index system of sustainable rural development based on the concept of ecological livability. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 86, 106478.
Liu, Q., Gong, D., & Gong, Y. (2022). Index system of rural human settlement in rural revitalization under the perspective of China. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 1-11.
Lockyer, J., & Veteto, J. R. (Eds.). (2013). Environmental anthropology engaging ecotopia: bioregionalism, permaculture, and ecovillages (Vol. 17). Berghahn Books.‏
Mahdavi, D., & Hatami, M. (2020). Analysis of key indicators of ecovillage pattern in tourist-attracted villages on the margin of Chaghakhor lagoon. Physical Social Planning, 6(4), 105-119. doi: 10.30473/psp.2020.6591
Mohan, J. (2012). Geographical foundations of the Big Society. Environment and Planning A, 44(5), 1121-1127. doi:10.1068/a44697
Momeni, Mansour. (2006). New topics of research in operations. Faculty of Management, University of Tehran. (in Persian).
Newman, P.W.G. (1999) Sustainability and cities: extending the metabolism model. Landscape and Urban Planning 44 pp. 219– 226.
Pacione, M. (1990) Urban livability; a review. Urban geography 11 (1) pp. 1– 30.
Pattie, C. and R. Johnston (2011) How big is the big society? Parliamentary Affairs 64 pp. 403– 424.
Pourjamshidi H. (2018). Factors Affecting the Development of Agricultural Entrepreneurship in Rural Areas (Case Study: Selsele City). jea 2018; 4 (8): 32-38.
Putters, K. (2014). Rijk geschakeerd. Op weg naar de participatiesamenleving. Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau, Den Haag.
Ruth, M. and R. Franklin (2014) Liveability for all? Conceptual limits and practical implications. Applied Geography 49 pp. 18– 23.
Safai Poor, M., Tahmasbi, S., & Qareqani, M. (2016). Eco village. Human & Environment14(4), 53-66.
Savari, M., Barfizadeh, L., & Asadi, Z. (2021). Effects of Social Capital on Achieving Food Security in Drought Conditions (Case Study: Rural Settlements in Dorud County). Geography and Environmental Planning, 32(4), 1-28.
Sepahvand, F., Gholamrezai, S., & Rahimian, M. (2019). Solutions to Enhance the Farmers’ Participation in Water Users Associations (WUAs) in Lorestan Province, Iran. International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development, 9(3), 261-271.
Shahrokhi, S. A., & Nemati, M. (2018). Study of the process of constructing Tehran road to Khuzestan and its effect on Lorestan social situation in two decades after 1300. Tahqiqāt-e Tārikh-e Ejtemā’i (Social History Studies), 8(2), 1-35.
Shucksmith, M., S. Cameron, T. Merridew et al. (2009) Urban–rural differences in quality of life across the European Union. Regional Studies 43 (10) pp. 1275– 1289.
Seymoar, J. (2008). Principles of livable communities, journal of environmental science, 12:1, 172-188.
Sojasi Qeidari, H. Sadeghlo, T. Mahmoudi, H. (2019). Ranking of Rural area based on livability indexes (Case study area: Nezam abad rural district from Azadshahr County), Human Geography Research Quarterly, 51(107), 129-144.
Tavakkolli, J. (2014). Socio- economic sustainability assessment of rural settlements of north and south Khave rural districts, Lorestan province, Journal of Applied Researches in Geographical Sciences, 14(32), 71-92.
Van Kamp, I., K. Leidelmeijer and G. Marsman et al. (2003) Urban environmental quality and human well-being. Towards a conceptual framework and demarcation of concepts; a literature study. Landscape and Urban Planning 65 pp. 5– 18.
Varmaziari, H & Babaei, M. (2021). Government performance review report 6. Field of rural and nomadic development, office of infrastructure studies, Islamic Council Research Center Publications.
Veenhoven, R. (2000). Leefbaarheid: betekenis en meetmethoden. Study commissioned by the Ministerie van WVZ.
Verhoeven, I. and E. Tonkens (2013) Talking active citizenship: framing welfare state reform in England and the Netherland. Social Policy and Society 12 (3) pp. 415– 426. doi:10.1017/S1474746413000158
Wang, F. and D. Wang (2016) Place, geographical context and subjective well-being: state of art and future directions. Pp. 1– 42 in D. Wang and S. Hu eds, Mobility, sociability and well-being of urban living (Berlin: Springer).